Clinical pathway and access methods

The first step to access the Proton Center is a visit with a specialist doctor from the IEO Radiology Division at one of the dedicated outpatient clinicsRemote consultations are also offered to be followed by an in-person outpatient visit if an indication for Proton Therapy treatment is given. Both the in-person outpatient visit and the remote consultation are bookable on a solvency basis (private pay). In some cases, it is possible to undergo the visit in agreement with the National Health System; such requests will be subject to verification of the accessibility criteria dictated by the Italian Ministry of Health.

During this visit, the specialist will perform a clinical assessment to determine if, and with which method, the patient is suitable for proton treatment. Usually, further diagnostic tests are necessary, such as a histological examination and radiological staging.

Before starting Proton Therapy, usually a week in advance, a simulation CT scan will be performed to acquire detailed digital images of the tumour and the surrounding organs.

The therapy cycles

Proton Therapy cycles can be of 3 types:

COMPLETE CYCLE (averaging 14 sessions), indicated for patients with an in situ or removed neoplasm. In this case, Proton Therapy constitutes a unique radiotherapy treatment (curative, cytoreductive or adjuvant).

BOOST (up to 6 sessions), indicated for patients receiving Proton Therapy as part of a combined radiotherapy treatment (a cycle of conventional large-volume radiotherapy combined with a boost, i.e. an overdose of Proton Therapy on the part of the tumour at greatest risk of recurrence/persistence of neoplasia).

STEREOTACTIC (1-3 sessions), indicated for patients with primary tumours, recurrences or very small metastases. Proton Therapy can be administered in a few sessions (1-3) with a high dose per session (ablative dose).

Proton Therapy is delivered using a highly sophisticated device known as Gantry, and treatment takes place on an outpatient basis, without the need for hospitalisation. During the session, the patient is positioned on a bed and is kept still to ensure the accuracy of the process. The irradiation itself lasts about 30 minutes and is completely painless.

To book a visit

In order to book a visit or a remote consultation contact the IEO International Office




Università degli Studi di Milano


Ministero della Salute Joint Commission International bollinirosa

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